Tamil Thirumuraihal of the Tamil Saiva Saints (Naayanmaar)

Thread started by virarajendra on 21st September 2008 02:18 AM

Author: virarajendra

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A brief study on the twelve - Tamil Thirumuraihal of the Tamil Saiva Saints (Naayanmaar & Adiyaar) - of Tamil Nadu

The sacred “poems of Divine Praise” sung on "God - as Siva" (God Siva), by three among the four principal Tamil Saiva Saints, namely the Naayanmaar - Thirugnanasampanthar, Thirunaavukarasar and Suntharamoorthy of the period Sixth Century to Eighth century A.D. of Tamil Nadu, were known as "Thevaaram". The "poems of Divine Praise" sung by the fourth principal Tamil Saiva Saint namely the Maanikkavaasaka Swamikal of the period Third century A.D. of Tamil Nadu, was known as "Thiruvaasakam".

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AjLs...yer_detailpage With Coutesy from Lelamekala Vengidasan of You Tube

Note: Re - "God - as Siva"(God Siva) refer my Thread in this same website titled - "The Universal Truth of God Supreme"

"Thevaram" divides as Theva-aram meaning “garland to God”. Here it means the “garland of poems - of Divine Praise”. A group of ten to twelve Thevarams sung on God Siva presiding at different Temple Shrines in Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Sri Lanka - were each known as a "Thiruppathikam", also known as "Thiruppathiyam". The collection of poems of all other Tamil Saiva - Swamihal and Adiyaar were known as "Thiruppaadalkal" meaning “sacred poems”.

These "Thiruppathikamgal" and “Thiruppaadalkal” have been classified into eleven "Thirumuraihal". The Tamil "Periya Puranam" has been classified as the twelveth "Thirumurai".

"Thirumurai" means a “Sacred Order”. That is the order of classification made by the Saiva Adiyar - Nambiaandaar Nambi of the available Tamil - Thiruppathikamgal and Thiruppaadalhal sung by Tamil Saivite - Naayanmaar, Swamihal and Adiyaar of Tamil Nadu, on the request of the Chola Emperor "Rajaraja Chola - 1(A.D.985 – 1014)" of Tamil Nadu. The classification of these Thirumuraihal are as follows:

Thirumurai 1 to 3 The "Thevara Thiruppathikams" of Tamil Saiva Naayanaar –

Thirugnanasampathar - (A.D.641-657)
(a) First Thirumurai - 136 Pathikams on 136 different Siva Thalams
(b) Second Thirumurai - 122 Pathikams on 122 different Siva Thalams
(c) Third Thirumurai - 126 Pathikams on 126 different Siva Thalams


Thurumurai – 4 to 6 The "Thevara Thiruppathikams" of Tamil Saiva Naayanaar –

Thirunaavukkarasar - (A.D.568-649)
(a) Fourth Thirumurai - 113 Pathikams on 113 different Siva Thalams
(b) Fifth Thirumurai - 100 Pathikams on 100 different Siva Thalams
(c) Sixth Thirumurai - 99 Pathikams on 99 different Siva Thalams

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DA7Rq...yer_detailpage With Courtesy from Dr Padmini Kapalamoorthy - Producer & PathiPasuPasam - You Tube

Thirumurai – 7 The "Thevara Thiruppathkams" of Tamil Saiva Naayanaar –

Suntharamoorthy - (A.D.826-844)
(a) Seventh Thirumurai - 100 Pathikams on 100 different Siva Thalams

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z8y_P...yer_detailpage With Courtesy from Dr Padmini Kapalamoorthy - Producer & PathiPasuPasam - You Tube

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xn598...yer_detailpage With Courtesy from Dr Padmini Kapalamoorthy - Producer & PathiPasuPasam - You Tube

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3hY_F...yer_detailpage With Courtesy from Dr Padmini Kapalamoorthy - Producer & PathiPasu Pasam - You Tube

Thirumurai – 8 The "Thiruppaadalhal" meaning “sacred poems” of Tamil Saiva Swamihal –

Maanickkavaasakar - (A.D.285-317)
(a) Thiruvaasakam
(1) Twentysix Pirapantham sung at Chithambaram Siva Thalam
(2) Twenty Pirapantham sung at Thirupperunthurai Siva Thalam
(3) Two Pirapantham sung at Thiruannaamalai Siva Thalam
(4) Two Pirapantham sung at Thiruuththarakosamangai Siva Thalam
(5) One Pirapantham sung at Thirukkalukuntram Siva Thalam
(6) One Pirapantham sung at Thiruththonipuram Siva Thalam
(7) One Pirapantham sung at Thiruvaarur

(b) Thiruchitrambala Kovaiyaar (Thirukkovaiyaar)
A complete work on Ahaththinai immersed in Iraiyarul - 25 chapters

Thirumurai – 9 The "Thiruvisaippa" meaning “sacred musical poems” and "Thiruppallaandu" meaning "poems on longevity" of Tamil Saiva Adiyaar -

(1) Thirumaalikai Thevar
(a) Four Pathikams on Chithambaram Siva Thalam

(2) Chenthanaar
(a) Three Pathikams on three different Siva Thalams
(b) One Pathikam on Chithambaram Siva Thalam

(3) Karuvur Thevar
(a) Ten Pathikams on ten different Siva Thalams

(4) Poonththurutthinambi Kadanambi
(a) Two Pathikams on two different Siva Thalams

(5) Kandaraathiththar
(a) One Pathkam on Chithambaram Siva Thalam

(6) Venaattu Adihal
(a) One Pathikam on Chithambaram Siva Thalam

(7) Thiruvaaliyamuthanaar
(a) Four Pathikams on Chithambaram Siva Thalam

(8) Purudoththama Nambi
(a) Two Pathikams on Chithambaram Siva Thalams

(9) Chethiraayar
(a) One Pathikam on Chithambaram Siva Thalam

Thirumurai – 10 The "Thiruppaadalhal" meaning “sacred poems” of Tamil Saiva Naayanaar –

(1) Thirumanthiram - Philosophic essence of Siva Agamangal in Tamil, having nine Thanthirams (chapters)

Thirumurai – 11 The "Thiruppaadalhal" meaning “sacred poems” of Tamil Saiva Naayanmaar & Adiyaar and "Thiruppathikam"

(1) Kaaraikkaal Ammaiyaar
(a) Thiruvaalankaatu Mooththa Thiruppathikam
(b) Mooththa Thiruppathikam
(c) Thiruvirattai Manimaalai
(d) Atputhath Thiruvanthaathi

(2) Aiyadikal Kadavarkon
(a) Sheththira Thiruvenbaa

(3) Cheramaan Perumaal
(a) Ponvannaththanthaathi
(b) Thiruvaaruur Mummanikkovai

(4) Nakkeera Thevar
(a) Kaiyilaipaathi Kaalaththipaathi Anthaathi
(b) Thirueengoimalai Elupathu
(c) Thiruvalanchuli Mummanikkovai
(d) Thiruvelukoottrirukkai
(e) Perunththevapaani
(f) Koapap Pirasaatham
(g) Kaar Ettu
(h) Poatrith Thirukkalivenbaa
(i) Thirumurukaatrupadai
(j) Thirukannappathevar Thirumaram

(5) Kallaada Thevar
(a) Thirukannappathevar Thirumaram

(6) Kapila Thevar
(a) Mooththa Naayanaar Thiruvirattai Manimaalai
(b) Sivaperumaan Thiruvirattai Manimaalai
(c) Sivaperumaan Thiruvanthaathi

(7) Paranathevar
(a) Sivaperumaan Thiruvanthaathi

(8) Ilamperumaan Adihal
(a) Sivaperumaan Thirumummanikkovai

(9) Athiraavadikal
(a) Mooththa Pillaiyaar Thirumummanikkovai

(10) Pattinaththu Pillaiyaar
(a) Koyil Naanmanimaalai
(b) Thirukalumala Mummanikkovai
(c) Thiruvidamaruthoor Mummanikkovai
(d) Thiruvekambamudaiyaar Thiruvanthaathi
(e) Thiruvottriyur Orupaa Orupathu

(11) Nambiyaandaar Nambi
(a) Thirunaaraiyur Vinayakar Thiruvirattai Manimaalai
(b) Koyil Thiruppanniyar Viruttham
(c) Thiruththondar Thiruvanthaathi
(d) Aaludaipillaiyaar Thiruvanthaathi
(e) Aaludaipillaiyaar Thiruchanbai Viruttham
(f) Aaludaipillaiyaar Thirumummanikkovai
(g) Aaludaipillaiyaar Thiruvulaamaalai
(h) Aaludaipillaiyaar Thirukkalambakam
(i) Aaludaipillaiyaar Thiruththohai
(j) Thirunaavukkarasuthevar Thiruvehaathasamaalai

Thirumurai – 12 The "Thiruppaadalhal" meaning “sacred poems” of Tamil Sage/Poet –

(a) Periyapuranam - on the life histories of the - 63 Tamil Saiva Saints


The Tamil "Thirumuraikanda Puraanam" by the Meiyadiyaar Umapathi Sivasaariyaar relates the story of how the Chola Emperor Rajaraja Chola - 1 (A.D.985-1014) on he hearing some Thevarams for the first time sung by an Adiyaar and being absorbed in same went in search of the complete set of Thevarams, of the three principal Tamil Saiva Saints.

He finally found them written in Ola Leaf Manuscripts stacked in an old room at Chithambaram Temple, neglected and unattended for long by the Temple Priests (in preference to Vedic hyms) which ended up with white ants praying on them with many Ola leaves perished beyond recovery.

Website Video on Rajaraja Chola's finding of the Thirumuraihal of the three principal Saiva Saints:


Rajaraja Chola - 1 thereafter entrusted the Saiva Adiyar Nambiaandaar Nambi with the recovery of what ever remaing of these Thevarams in the undamged Ola Leaf Manuscripts, who carried out the instructions and recovered whatever possible and classified them into seven Thirumuraihal comprising 795 Thevara Thiruppathikams..

But one of Saint Thirugnanasampanthar's Pathikam which was not found in the first three Thirumuraikal thus classified, has been discovered engraved on the Thiruvidaivaai temple walls, which has made the total Thevara Thiruppathikams in the seven Thirumuraihal to 796.

The Thevara Thiruppathikamgal at times have also been engraved on Copper Plates in addition to the Ola Leaf Manuscripts. (This fact has been confirmed by two Temple Inscriptions, which has been highlighted for the first time by the Research Scholar - Kudanthai N.Sethuraman in his book titled "Aaiyvu Katturaikal" - first part).

At one instance an Officer of Kulothunga Chola - 1 named "Manavitkooththan Naralokaviran" made the seven Thirumuraihal of the three principal Tamil Saiva Saints engraved on copper plates and preserved them in the Chithambaram temple. However the subsequent fate of same are now not known.

In another instance during the period of the Pandiyan king Sadaiyavarman Kulasekaran, an Officer named "Panchavan Pirammaathiraajar" apparantly made all twelve Thirumuraihal engraved on copper plates and preserved same at the Sri Somanaathathevar temple at Aattrur. Today we are not aware of the fate of these copper plates too.

The Rajaraja Chola - 1 who discovered the Thevara Thiruppathiyam (Thiruppathikamkal) of the three principal Tamil Saiva Saints, not only arranged them to be classified into seven Thirumuraihal and preserved, but also arranged them to be sung in Siva Temples by "Pidarer" who were subsequently known as "Othuvar".

In the Thanjavur Rajarajeswarem temple (Periya Koyil presently know as Birahatheeswarem Temple) built by him - alone had fortyeight Othuvar who sung Thevara Thiruppathikamkal accompanied by a "Udukkai Vaasippavan" and "Kotti Matthalam Vaasippavan" as per this temple inscriptions.

However it is now known that the practice of singing Tamil Thevara Thiruppathikamkal in Siva Temples existed as early as A.D.852 from an inscription of the Pallava king the Nanthivarman - 3 in the Thiruvalam Temple. (Refer the book titled "Kapilakkal" by Kudavaayil Balasubramanian - page 92)


The Tamil "Seikkilaar Puraanam" by the Meiyadiyaar Umapathi Sivaasaariyaar relates the story of the circumstances under which the Periyapurnam was composed by Sage/Poet Seikilaar based on the informations on the Naayanaars and Adiyaars given in the Sundaramoorthy Naayanaar's Thevarap Pathikam titled "Thiruththondar Thohai" and the Saiva Adiyar Nambiyaandaar Nambi's "Thiruththondar Thiruanthaathi".

The ruling king of Chola Nadu the Kulothunga Chola - 2 (A.D.1133-1150) who became very absorbed in the study of the Jain Tamil Literary work titled the Seevaka Chinthamani. The Sage/Poet Seikilaar fearing that Kulothunga Chola will deviate from the traditional religion of the Chola kings of Saivaism and might change into Jainism, related the stories of the great Tamil Saiva Saints of the pre-medieval and medieval period Tamil Nadu to the Chola king.

These stories absorbed the Chola king in a great way and requested Seikkilaar to compose a religios work on the history and the spiritual acheivements attained by the Tamil Saiva Saints of that period, which he did and ended up with composition of the "Thiruthondar Puraanam" also known as the "Periya Puraanam" relating the life of sixty three Tamil Saiva Saints.


From the period of Rajaraja Chola - 1 onwards bronze icons and stone statues of the sixty three Tamil Saiva Saints were installed and venerated in many big and small Siva temples in Tamil Nadu and elsewhere. Special Poosai Valipaadukal were performed to the Saints especially during the annual temple festivals and on the days of the birth star of these Saints.

Today Mayilaapur Kapaaleeswarem temple in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, is in the forefront among all the Siva temples, in their great veneration of the sixty three Tamil Saiva Saints, during their annual temple festival in the month of March/April, with special poosai valipaadukal and the processssion of these Saints each in a seperate "Sapparam", within the vicinity of the temple.


This thread is to be further developed, perfected and corrections made where required by the Author



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